United Republic of Tanzania
Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania (Swahili)
Motto: “Uhuru na Umoja” (Swahili)
“Freedom and Unity“
Anthem: “Mungu ibariki Afrika”
(English: “God Bless Africa”)
|Capital||Dodoma (de jure)|
|Largest city||Dar es Salaam|
|Government||Unitary dominant party presidential constitutional republic|
|Samia Hassan Suluhu|
|Ibrahim Hamis Juma|
|Independence from the United Kingdom|
|9 December 1961|
|10 December 1963|
|26 April 1964|
• Current constitution
|25 April 1977|
|947,303 km2 (365,756 sq mi) (31st)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
• 2012 census
|47.5/km2 (123.0/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2018)|| 0.528
low · 159th
|Currency||Tanzanian shilling (TZS)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (EAT)|
|Calling code||+255[note 1]|
|ISO 3166 code||TZ|
Tanzania (/ˌtænzəˈniːə/,[note 2] Swahili: [tanzaˈni.a]), officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands and the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa’s highest mountain, is in northeastern Tanzania.
Many important hominid fossils have been found in Tanzania, such as 6-million-year-old Pliocene hominid fossils. The genus Australopithecus ranged all over Africa 4 to 2 million years ago; and the oldest remains of the genus Homo are found near Lake Olduvai. Following the rise of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago, humanity spread all over the Old World, and later in the New World and Australia under the species Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens also overtook Africa and absorbed the older archaic species and subspecies of humanity. One of the oldest known ethnic groups still existing, the Hadzabe, appears to have originated in Tanzania, and their oral history recalls ancestors who were tall and were the first to use fire, medicine, and lived in caves, much like Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis who lived in the same region before them.
Later in the Stone and Bronze Age, prehistoric migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from present-day Ethiopia; Eastern Cushitic people who moved into Tanzania from north of Lake Turkana about 2,000 and 4,000 years ago; and the Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, who originated from the present-day South Sudan–Ethiopia border region between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.:page 18 These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.
German rule began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa. This was followed by British rule after World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania. The countries had joined the British Commonwealth in 1961 and Tanzania is still a member of the Commonwealth as one republic.
The United Nations estimated Tanzania’s 2018 population at 56.31 million, which is slightly smaller than South Africa, making it the second most populous country located entirely south of the Equator. The population is composed of about 120 ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president’s office, the National Assembly, and some government ministries are located. Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country’s largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre. Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power.
Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa’s Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent’s deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the south lies Lake Malawi. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar’s largest marine protected area. The Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa.
Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. The country does not have a de jure official language, although the national language is Swahili. Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as the primary language of instruction but it will be available as an optional course. Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language.
The name “Tanzania” was created as a clipped compound of the names of the two states that unified to create the country: Tanganyika and Zanzibar. It consists of the first three letters of the names of the two states (“Tan” and “Zan”) and the suffix, “ia” to form Tanzania.
The name “Tanganyika” is derived from the Swahili words tanga (“sail”) and nyika (“uninhabited plain”, “wilderness”), creating the phrase “sail in the wilderness”. It is sometimes understood as a reference to Lake Tanganyika.
The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia and Somalia into Tanzania. They are ancestral to the Iraqw, Gorowa, and Burunge.:page 17 Based on linguistic evidence, there may also have been two movements into Tanzania of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana.:pages 17–18
Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia border region into central northern Tanzania between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.:page 18
These movements took place at approximately the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the primary staple of yams. They subsequently migrated out of these regions across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.
The people of Tanzania have been associated with the production of iron and steel. The Pare people were the main producers of highly demanded iron for peoples who occupied the mountain regions of north-eastern Tanzania. The Haya people on the western shores of Lake Victoria invented a type of high-heat blast furnace, which allowed them to forge carbon steel at temperatures exceeding 1,820 °C (3,310 °F) more than 1,500 years ago.
Travelers and merchants from the Persian Gulf and India have visited the east African coast since early in the first millennium AD. Islam was practised by some on the Swahili Coast as early as the eighth or ninth century A.D.
Claiming the coastal strip, Omani Sultan Said bin Sultan moved his capital to Zanzibar City in 1840. During this time, Zanzibar became the centre for the Arab slave trade. Between 65 and 90 percent of the Arab-Swahili population of Zanzibar was enslaved. One of the most infamous slave traders on the East African coast was Tippu Tip, who was the grandson of an enslaved African. The Nyamwezi slave traders operated under the leadership of Msiri and Mirambo. According to Timothy Insoll, “Figures record the exporting of 718,000 slaves from the Swahili coast during the 19th century, and the retention of 769,000 on the coast.” In the 1890s, slavery was abolished.
In the late 19th century, Germany conquered the regions that are now Tanzania (minus Zanzibar) and incorporated them into German East Africa (GEA). The Supreme Council of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference awarded all of GEA to Britain on 7 May 1919, over the strenuous objections of Belgium.:240 The British colonial secretary, Alfred Milner, and Belgium’s minister plenipotentiary to the conference, Pierre Orts, then negotiated the Anglo-Belgian agreement of 30 May 1919:618–9 where Britain ceded the north-western GEA provinces of Ruanda and Urundi to Belgium.:246 The conference’s Commission on Mandates ratified this agreement on 16 July 1919.:246–7 The Supreme Council accepted the agreement on 7 August 1919.:612–3 On 12 July 1919, the Commission on Mandates agreed that the small Kionga Triangle south of the Rovuma River would be given to Portuguese Mozambique,:243 with it eventually becoming part of independent Mozambique. The commission reasoned that Germany had virtually forced Portugal to cede the triangle in 1894.:243 The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 July 1919, although the treaty did not take effect until 10 January 1920. On that date, the GEA was transferred officially to Britain, Belgium, and Portugal. Also on that date, “Tanganyika” became the name of the British territory.
During World War II, about 100,000 people from Tanganyika joined the Allied forces and were among the 375,000 Africans who fought with those forces. Tanganyikans fought in units of the King’s African Rifles during the East African Campaign in Somalia and Abyssinia against the Italians, in Madagascar against the Vichy French during the Madagascar Campaign, and in Burma against the Japanese during the Burma Campaign. Tanganyika was an important source of food during this war, and its export income increased greatly compared to the pre-war years of the Great Depression Wartime demand, however, caused increased commodity prices and massive inflation within the colony.
In 1954, Julius Nyerere transformed an organisation into the politically oriented Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). TANU’s main objective was to achieve national sovereignty for Tanganyika. A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year, TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country. Nyerere became Minister of British-administered Tanganyika in 1960 and continued as prime minister when Tanganyika became independent in 1961.
British rule came to an end on 9 December 1961, but for the first year of independence, Tanganyika had a governor general who represented the British monarch.:page 6 Tanganyika also joined the British Commonwealth in 1961. On 9 December 1962, Tanganyika became a democratic republic under an executive president.:page 6
After the Zanzibar Revolution overthrew the Arab dynasty in neighbouring Zanzibar, which had become independent in 1963, the archipelago merged with mainland Tanganyika on 26 April 1964. The new country was then named the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. On 29 October of the same year, the country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania (“Tan” comes from Tanganyika and “Zan” from Zanzibar). The union of the two hitherto separate regions was controversial among many Zanzibaris (even those sympathetic to the revolution) but was accepted by both the Nyerere government and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar owing to shared political values and goals.
Following Tanganyika’s independence and unification with Zanzibar leading to the state of Tanzania, President Nyerere emphasised a need to construct a national identity for the citizens of the new country. To achieve this, Nyerere provided what is regarded as one of the most successful cases of ethnic repression and identity transformation in Africa. With over 130 languages spoken within its territory, Tanzania is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Africa. Despite this obstacle, ethnic divisions remained rare in Tanzania when compared to the rest of the continent, notably its immediate neighbour, Kenya. Furthermore, since its independence, Tanzania has displayed more political stability than most African countries, particularly due to Nyerere’s ethnic repression methods.
In 1967, Nyerere’s first presidency took a turn to the left after the Arusha Declaration, which codified a commitment to socialism as well as Pan-Africanism. After the declaration, banks and many large industries were nationalised.
Tanzania was also aligned with China, which from 1970 to 1975 financed and helped build the 1,860-kilometre-long (1,160 mi) TAZARA Railway from Dar es Salaam to Zambia. Nonetheless, from the late 1970s, Tanzania’s economy took a turn for the worse, in the context of an international economic crisis affecting both developed and developing economies.
From the mid-1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary Fund and underwent some reforms. Since then, Tanzania’s gross domestic product per capita has grown and poverty has been reduced, according to a report by the World Bank.
In 1992, the Constitution of Tanzania was amended to allow multiple political parties. In Tanzania’s first multi-party elections, held in 1995, the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi won 186 of the 232 elected seats in the National Assembly, and Benjamin Mkapa was elected as president.
At 947,303 square kilometres (365,756 sq mi), Tanzania is the 13th largest country in Africa and the 31st largest in the world, ranked between the larger Egypt and smaller Nigeria. It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. Tanzania is located on the eastern coast of Africa and has an Indian Ocean coastline approximately 1,424 kilometres (885 mi) long. It also incorporates several offshore islands, including Unguja (Zanzibar), Pemba, and Mafia.:page 1245 The country is the site of Africa’s highest and lowest points: Mount Kilimanjaro, at 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level, and the floor of Lake Tanganyika, at 1,471 metres (4,826 ft) below sea level, respectively.:page 1245
Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa’s Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent’s deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the southwest lies Lake Nyasa. Central Tanzania is a large plateau, with plains and arable land. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore.
Kalambo Falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa, and is located near the southeastern shore of Lake Tanganyika on the border with Zambia. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar’s largest marine protected area.
This paragraph needs additional citations for verification. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Climate varies greatly within Tanzania. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). Annual temperature is 20 °C (68.0 °F). The climate is cool in high mountainous regions.
Tanzania has two major rainfall periods: one is uni-modal (October–April) and the other is bi-modal (October–December and March–May). The former is experienced in southern, central, and western parts of the country, and the latter is found in the north from Lake Victoria extending east to the coast. The bi-modal rainfall is caused by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
Wildlife and conservation
Approximately 38 percent of Tanzania’s land area is set aside in protected areas for conservation. Tanzania has 16 national parks, plus a variety of game and forest reserves, including the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In western Tanzania, Gombe Stream National Park is the site of Jane Goodall‘s ongoing study of chimpanzee behaviour, which started in 1960.
Tanzania is highly biodiverse and contains a wide variety of animal habitats. On Tanzania’s Serengeti plain, white-bearded wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi), other bovids and zebra  participate in a large-scale annual migration. Tanzania is home to about 130 amphibian and over 275 reptile species, many of them strictly endemic and included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature‘s Red Lists of countries.
Tanzania is a one party dominant state with the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party in power. From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. This changed on 1 July 1992, when the constitution was amended.:§ 3
John Magufuli won the October 2015 presidential election and secured a two-thirds majority in parliament. The other party or main opposition party[vague] in Tanzania is called Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Chadema) (Swahili for “Party for Democracy and Progress”). In Zanzibar, the Civil United Front (CUF) is considered a main opposition political party.
The president of Tanzania and the members of the National Assembly are elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms.:§ 42(2) The vice-president is elected for a five-year term at the same time as the president and on the same ticket.:§§ 47(2), 50(1) Neither the president nor the vice-president may be a member of the National Assembly.:§ 66(2) The president appoints a prime minister, subject to confirmation by the assembly, to serve as the government’s leader in the assembly.:§§ 51(1)-(2), 52(2) The president selects his or her cabinet from assembly members.:§ 55
All legislative power relating to mainland Tanzania and union matters is vested in the National Assembly,:§ 64(1) which is unicameral and has a maximum of 357 members. These include members elected to represent constituencies, the attorney general, five members elected by the Zanzibar house of representatives from among its own members, the special women’s seats that constitute at least 30% of the seats that any party has in the assembly, the speaker of the assembly (if not otherwise a member of the assembly), and the persons (not more than ten) appointed by the president.:§ 66(1) The Tanzania Electoral Commission demarcates the mainland into constituencies in the number determined by the commission with the consent of the president.:§ 75
Tanzania has a four-level judiciary. The lowest-level courts on the Tanzanian mainland are the Primary Courts. In Zanzibar, the lowest-level courts are the Kadhi’s Courts for Islamic family matters and the Primary Courts for all other cases. On the mainland, appeal is to either the District Courts or the Resident Magistrates Courts. In Zanzibar, appeal is to the Kadhi’s Appeal Courts for Islamic family matters and the Magistrates Courts for all other cases. From there, appeal is to the High Court of Mainland Tanzania or Zanzibar. No appeal regarding Islamic family matters can be made from the High Court of Zanzibar.:§ 99(1) Otherwise, the final appeal is to the Court of Appeal of Tanzania.
The High Court of mainland Tanzania has three divisions – commercial, labour, and land – and 15 geographic zones. The High Court of Zanzibar has an industrial division, which hears only labour disputes.
Mainland and union judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of Tanzania, except for those of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, who are appointed by the president of Tanzania.: §§ 109(1), 118(2)–(3)
Throughout Tanzania, sex acts between men are illegal and carry a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. According to a 2007 Pew Research Centre survey, 95 percent of Tanzanians believed that homosexuality should not be accepted by society.
People with albinism living in Tanzania are often attacked, killed or mutilated because of superstitions related to the black-magical practice known as muti that say body parts of albinos have magical properties.
In December 2019, Amnesty International reported that the Tanzanian government annulled the right of NGOs as well as individuals to directly file any case against it at the Arusha-based African Court for Human and Peoples’ Rights.
The legislative authority in Zanzibar over all non-union matters is vested in the House of Representatives (per the Tanzania constitution):§ 106(3) or the Legislative Council (per the Zanzibar constitution).
The Legislative Council has two parts: the president of Zanzibar and the House of Representatives.:§ 107(1)-(2):§ 63(1) The president is Zanzibar’s head of government and the chairman of the Revolutionary Council, in which the executive authority of Zanzibar is invested.:§§ 5A(2), 26(1) Zanzibar has two vice-presidents, with the first being from the main opposition party in the house. The second is from the party in power and is the leader of government business in the House.
The president and the members of the House of Representatives have five-year terms and can be elected for a second term.:§ 28(2)
The president selects ministers from members of the House of Representatives,:§ 42(2) with the ministers allocated according to the number of House seats won by political parties. The Revolutionary Council consists of the president, both vice-presidents, all ministers, the attorney general of Zanzibar, and other house members deemed fit by the president.
The House of Representatives is composed of elected members, ten members appointed by the president, all the regional commissioners of Zanzibar, the attorney general, and appointed female members whose number must be equal to 30 percent of the elected members.:§§ 55(3), 64, 67(1) The House determines the number of its elected members:§ 120(2) with the Zanzibar Electoral Commission determining the boundaries of each election constituency.:§ 120(1) In 2013, the House had 81 members: fifty elected members, five regional commissioners, the attorney general, ten members appointed by the president, and fifteen appointed female members.
In 1972, local government on the mainland was abolished and replaced with direct rule from the central government. Local government, however, was reintroduced in the beginning of the 1980s, when the rural councils and rural authorities were re-established. Local government elections took place in 1983, and functioning councils started in 1984. In 1999, a Local Government Reform Programme was enacted by the National Assembly, setting “a comprehensive and ambitious agenda … [covering] four areas: political decentralization, financial decentralization, administrative decentralization and changed central-local relations, with the mainland government having overriding powers within the framework of the Constitution.”
As of 2016, Tanzania is divided into thirty-one regions. regions (mkoa), twenty-six on the mainland and five in Zanzibar (three on Unguja, two on Pemba). In 2012, the thirty former regions were divided into 169 districts (wilaya), also known as local government authorities. Of those districts, 34 were urban units, which were further classified as three city councils (Arusha, Mbeya, and Mwanza), nineteen municipal councils, and twelve town councils.
The urban units have an autonomous city, municipal, or town council and are subdivided into wards and mtaa. The non-urban units have an autonomous district council but are subdivided into village councils or township authorities (first level) and then into vitongoji.
The city of Dar es Salaam is unique because it has a city council whose areal jurisdiction overlaps three municipal councils. The mayor of the city council is elected by that council. The twenty-member city council is composed of eleven persons elected by the municipal councils, seven members of the National Assembly, and “Nominated members of parliament under ‘Special Seats’ for women”. Each municipal council also has a mayor. “The City Council performs a coordinating role and attends to issues cutting across the three municipalities”, including security and emergency services. The city of Mwanza has a city council whose areal jurisdiction overlaps two municipal councils.
Apart from its border dispute with Malawi, Tanzania had cordial relations with its neighbours in 2012.
Relations between Tanzania and Malawi have been tense because of a dispute over the countries’ Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) border. An unsuccessful mediation regarding this issue took place in March 2014.:page 1250 The two countries agreed in 2013 to ask the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to resolve the dispute should mediation be unsuccessful. Malawi, but not Tanzania, has accepted the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ.
Relations between Tanzania and Rwanda deteriorated in 2013 when Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete said that if the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) could negotiate with some of its enemies, Rwanda should be able to do the same. Rwandan President Paul Kagame then expressed “contempt” for Kikwete’s statement. The tension was renewed in May 2014 when, in a speech to the Tanzanian National Assembly, Foreign Affairs Minister Bernard Membe renewed his claim that Rwandans were causing instability in the DRC. Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister Louise Mushikiwabo responded, “As for Tanzania’s foreign minister whose anti-Rwanda rant in parliament I heard, he would benefit from a lesson in the history of the region.”
Tanzania has maintained strong relations with the United Kingdom since its independence; Britain remains the largest non-African importer of Tanzanian tea and other raw materials are exchanged. Britain remains a high contributor of tourists to Tanzania. Both are members of the Commonwealth of Nations and engage in strategic union in defence, security and ceremonial affairs; the Tanzanian High Commission is in London and the British have a High Commission in Dar es Salaam.
Tanzania’s relations with other donor countries, including Japan and members of the European Union, are generally good, though donors are concerned about Tanzania’s commitment to reducing government corruption.:page 1250
Tanzania is a member of the East African Community (EAC), along with Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Burundi. According to the East African Common Market Protocol of 2010, the free trade and free movement of people is guaranteed, including the right to reside in another member country for purposes of employment.:1250 This protocol, however, has not been implemented because of work permit and other bureaucratic, legal, and financial obstacles.
Tanzania is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The EAC, the SADC, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa agreed in June 2011 to negotiate the creation of a Tripartite Free Trade Area spanning 26 African countries, with a goal to complete the first phase of negotiations within 36 months.
As of 31 October 2014, Tanzania was contributing 2,253 soldiers and other personnel to various United Nations peacekeeping operations. The Tanzanian military is participating along with South African and Malawian militaries in the United Nations Force Intervention Brigade (MONUSCO) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The United Nations Security Council authorised the force on 28 March 2013 to conduct targeted offensive operations to neutralise groups that threaten peace in the DRC. Tanzania was also participating in peacekeeping missions in the Darfur Region of Sudan (UNAMID); Abyei, control of which is contested between South Sudan and Sudan (UNISFA); the Central African Republic (MINUSCA); Lebanon (UNIFIL); and South Sudan (UNMISS).
Economy and infrastructure
As of 2018, according to the IMF, Tanzania’s gross domestic product (GDP) was an estimated $56.7 billion (nominal), or $176.5 billion on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. GDP per capita (PPP) was $3,457.
From 2009 through 2013, Tanzania’s per capita GDP (based on constant local currency) grew an average of 3.5% per year, higher than any other member of the East African Community (EAC) and exceeded by only nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Liberia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Tanzania’s largest trading partners in 2017 for its US$5.3 billion in exports were India, Vietnam, South Africa, Switzerland, and China. Its imports totalled US$8.17 billion, with India, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia, China, and the United Arab Emirates being the biggest partners.
Tanzania weathered the Great Recession, which began in late 2008 or early 2009, relatively well. Strong gold prices, bolstering the country’s mining industry, and Tanzania’s poor integration into global markets helped to insulate the country from the downturn.:page 1250 Since the recession ended, the Tanzanian economy has expanded rapidly thanks to strong tourism, telecommunications, and banking sectors.:page 1250
According to the United Nations Development Programme, however, recent growth in the national economy has benefited only the “very few”, leaving out the majority of the population. Tanzania’s 2013 Global Hunger Index was worse than any other country in the EAC except Burundi.:page 15 The proportion of persons who were undernourished in 2010–12 was also worse than any other EAC country except Burundi.:page 51
Hunger and poverty
Tanzania has made some progress towards reducing extreme hunger and malnutrition. The Global Hunger Index ranked the situation as “alarming” with a score of 42 in the year 2000, since then the GHI has declined to 29.5. Children in rural areas suffer substantially higher rates of malnutrition and chronic hunger, although urban-rural disparities have narrowed as regards both stunting and underweight. Low rural sector productivity arises mainly from inadequate infrastructure investment; limited access to farm inputs, extension services and credit; limited technology as well as trade and marketing support; and heavy dependence on rain-fed agriculture and natural resources.
Approximately 68 percent of Tanzania’s 44.9 million citizens live below the poverty line of $1.25 a day. 32 percent of the population are malnourished. The most prominent challenges Tanzania faces in poverty reduction are unsustainable harvesting of its natural resources, unchecked cultivation, climate change and water- source encroachment, according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
There are very few resources for Tanzanians in terms of credit services, infrastructure or availability to improved agricultural technologies, which further exacerbates hunger and poverty in the country according to the UNDP. Tanzania ranks 159 out of 187 countries in poverty according to the United Nation’s Human Development Index (2014).
The Tanzanian economy is heavily based on agriculture, which in 2013 accounted for 24.5 percent of gross domestic product,:page 37 provides 85% of exports, and accounted for half of the employed workforce;:page 56 The agricultural sector grew 4.3 percent in 2012, less than half of the Millennium Development Goal target of 10.8%. 16.4 percent of the land is arable, with 2.4 percent of the land planted with permanent crops. Tanzania’s economy relies on farming, but climate change has impacted their farming.
Maize was the largest food crop on the Tanzania mainland in 2013 (5.17 million tonnes), followed by cassava (1.94 million tonnes), sweet potatoes (1.88 million tonnes), beans (1.64 million tonnes), bananas (1.31 million tonnes), rice (1.31 million tonnes), and millet (1.04 million tonnes).:page 58 Sugar was the largest cash crop on the mainland in 2013 (296,679 tonnes), followed by cotton (241,198 tonnes), cashew nuts (126,000 tonnes), tobacco (86,877 tonnes), coffee (48,000 tonnes), sisal (37,368 tonnes), and tea (32,422 tonnes).:page 58 Beef was the largest meat product on the mainland in 2013 (299,581 tonnes), followed by lamb/mutton (115,652 tonnes), chicken (87,408 tonnes), and pork (50,814 tonnes).:page 60
According to the 2002 National Irrigation Master Plan, 29.4 million hectares in Tanzania are suitable for irrigation farming; however, only 310,745 hectares were actually being irrigated in June 2011.
Industry, energy and construction
Industry and construction is a major and growing component of the Tanzanian economy, contributing 22.2 percent of GDP in 2013.:page 37 This component includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and natural gas, water supply, and construction.:page 37 Mining contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2013.:page 33 The vast majority of the country’s mineral export revenue comes from gold, accounting for 89 percent of the value of those exports in 2013.:page 71 It also exports sizeable quantities of gemstones, including diamonds and tanzanite.:page 1251 All of Tanzania’s coal production, which totalled 106,000 short tons in 2012, is used domestically.
Only 15 percent of Tanzanians had access to electric power in 2011. The government-owned Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) dominates the electric supply industry in Tanzania. The country generated 6.013 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity in 2013, a 4.2 percent increase over the 5.771 billion kWh generated in 2012.:page 4 Generation increased by 63 percent between 2005 and 2012; Almost 18 percent of the electricity generated in 2012 was lost because of theft and transmission and distribution problems. The electrical supply varies, particularly when droughts disrupt hydropower electric generation; rolling blackouts are implemented as necessary.:page 1251 The unreliability of the electrical supply has hindered the development of Tanzanian industry.:page 1251 In 2013, 49.7 percent of Tanzania’s electricity generation came from natural gas, 28.9 percent from hydroelectric sources, 20.4 percent from thermal sources, and 1.0 percent from outside the country.:page 5 The government has built a 532 kilometres (331 mi) gas pipeline from Mnazi Bay to Dar es Salaam. This pipeline was expected to allow the country to double its electricity generation capacity to 3,000 megawatts by 2016. The government’s goal is to increase capacity to at least 10,000 megawatts by 2025.
According to PFC Energy, 25 to 30 trillion cubic feet of recoverable natural gas resources have been discovered in Tanzania since 2010, bringing the total reserves to over 43 trillion cubic feet by the end of 2013. The value of natural gas actually produced in 2013 was US$52.2 million, a 42.7 percent increase over 2012.:page 73
Commercial production of gas from the Songo Songo Island field in the Indian Ocean commenced in 2004, thirty years after it was discovered there. Over 35 billion cubic feet of gas was produced from this field in 2013,:page 72 with proven, probable, and possible reserves totalling 1.1 trillion cubic feet. The gas is transported by pipeline to Dar es Salaam. As of 27 August 2014, TANESCO owed the operator of this field, Orca Exploration Group Inc.
A newer natural gas field in Mnazi Bay in 2013 produced about one-seventh of the amount produced near Songo Songo Island:page 73 but has proven, probable, and possible reserves of 2.2 trillion cubic feet. Virtually all of that gas is being used for electricity generation in Mtwara.
The Ruvuma and Nyuna regions of Tanzania have been explored mostly by the discovery company that holds a 75 percent interest, Aminex, and has shown to hold in excess of 3.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A pipeline connecting offshore natural gas fields to Tanzania’s commercial capital Dar es Salaam was completed at the end of April 2015.
Travel and tourism contributed 17.5 percent of Tanzania’s gross domestic product in 2016 and employed 11.0 percent of the country’s labour force (1,189,300 jobs) in 2013. Overall receipts rose from US$1.74 billion in 2004 to US$4.48 billion in 2013, and receipts from international tourists rose from US$1.255 billion in 2010 to US$2 billion in 2016. In 2016, 1,284,279 tourists arrived at Tanzania’s borders compared to 590,000 in 2005. The vast majority of tourists visit Zanzibar or a “northern circuit” of Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara National Park, and Mount Kilimanjaro.:page 1252 In 2013, the most visited national park was Serengeti (452,485 tourists), followed by Manyara (187,773) and Tarangire (165,949).:page xx
The Bank of Tanzania is the central bank of Tanzania and is primarily responsible for maintaining price stability, with a subsidiary responsibility for issuing Tanzanian shilling notes and coins. At the end of 2013, the total assets of the Tanzanian banking industry were 19.5 trillion Tanzanian shillings, a 15 percent increase over 2012.
Most transport in Tanzania is by road, with road transport constituting over 75 percent of the country’s freight traffic and 80 percent of its passenger traffic.:page 1252 The 86,500 kilometres (53,700 mi) road system is in generally poor condition.:page 1252 Tanzania has two railway companies: TAZARA, which provides service between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi (in a copper-mining district in Zambia), and Tanzania Railways Limited, which connects Dar es Salaam with central and northern Tanzania.:page 1252 Rail travel in Tanzania often entails slow journeys with frequent cancellations or delays, and the railways have a deficient safety record.:page 1252
In Dar es Salaam, there is a huge project of rapid buses, Dar Rapid Transit (DART) which connects suburbs of Dar es Salaam city. The development of the DART system consists of six phases and is funded by the African Development Bank, the World Bank and the Government of Tanzania. The first phase began in April 2012, and it was completed in December 2015 and launched operations in May 2016.
Tanzania has four international airports, along with over 100 small airports or landing strips. Airport infrastructure tends to be in poor condition.:page 1253 Airlines in Tanzania include Air Tanzania, Precision Air, Fastjet, Coastal Aviation, and ZanAir.:page 1253
In 2013, the communications sector was the fastest growing in Tanzania, expanding 22.8 percent; however, the sector accounted for only 2.4 percent of gross domestic product that year.:page 2
As of 2011, Tanzania had 56 mobile telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, a rate slightly above the sub-Saharan average.:page 1253 Very few Tanzanians have fixed-line telephones.:page 1253 Approximately 12 percent of Tanzanians used the internet as of 2011, though this number is growing rapidly.:page 1253 The country has a fibre-optic cable network that replaced unreliable satellite service, but internet bandwidth remains very low.:page 1253
Water supply and sanitation
Water supply and sanitation in Tanzania has been characterised by decreasing access to improved water sources in the 2000s (especially in urban areas), steady access to some form of sanitation (around 93 percent since the 1990s), intermittent water supplies, and generally low quality of service. Many utilities are barely able to cover their operation and maintenance costs through revenues because of low tariffs and poor efficiency. There are significant regional differences, with the best performing utilities being Arusha, Moshi, and Tanga.
The government of Tanzania has embarked on a major sector reform process since 2002. An ambitious National Water Sector Development Strategy that promotes integrated water resources management and the development of urban and rural water supply was adopted in 2006. Decentralisation has meant that responsibility for water and sanitation service provision has shifted to local government authorities and is carried out by 20 urban utilities and about 100 district utilities, as well as by Community Owned Water Supply Organisations in rural areas.
These reforms have been backed by a significant increase of the budget starting in 2006, when the water sector was included among the priority sectors of the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty . The Tanzanian water sector remains heavily dependent on external donors, with 88 percent of the available funds being provided by external donor organisations. Results have been mixed. For example, a report by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit noted that “despite heavy investments brought in by the World Bank and the European Union, (the utility serving Dar es Salaam) has remained one of the worst performing water entities in Tanzania.”
Food and nutrition
Poor nutrition remains a persistent problem within Tanzania and varies hugely throughout the country’s regions. USAID reports that 16% of children are underweight and 34% experience stunted growth as a result of malnutrition. 10 regions house 58% of children suffering from stunted growth while 50% of acutely malnourished children can be found in 5 regions. Over a 5-year period, the Mara district of Tanzania saw a 15% reduction in stunting in children under 5 years old, falling from 46% to 31% in 2005 and 2010 respectively. Dodoma, on the other hand saw a 7% increase in the prevalence of stunting in this age group, rising from 50% in 2005 to 57% in 2010. Overall availability of food does not necessarily contribute to overall stunting figures. Iringa, Mbeya and Rukwa regions, where overall availability of food is considered acceptable still experience stunting incidences in excess of 50%. In some areas where food shortages are common such as in the Tabora and Singida regions, stunting incidences remain comparatively less than those seen in Iringa, Mbeya and Rukwa. The Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre attributes these discrepancies to variance in maternal malnutrition, poor infant feeding practices, hygiene practices and poor healthcare services. Periods of drought can have significant impacts on the production of crops in Tanzania. Drought in East Africa has resulted in massive increases in the prices of food staples such as maize and sorghum, crops crucial to the nutrition of the majority of Tanzania’s population. From 2015 to 2017, the price of maize when bought wholesale has more than doubled from 400 Shillings per kilogram to 1253 Shillings per kilogram respectively.
Tanzania remains heavily agricultural, with 80% of the total population engaging in subsistence farming. Rural areas are subjected to increased food shortages in comparison to urbanised areas, with a survey carried out within the country in 2017 finding 84% of people in rural areas suffering food shortages over a 3-month period compared to 64% of residents in cities. This disparity between rural and city nutrition can be attributed to various factors; increased nutritional needs due to manual labour, more limited access to food as a result of poor infrastructure, high-susceptibility to the damaging effects of nature and the “Agricultural Productivity Gap”. The Agricultural Productivity Gap postulates that “value added per worker” is often much lower within the agricultural sector than that found within non-agricultural sectors. Furthermore, allocation of labour within the agricultural sector is largely allocated ineffectively.
Programmes targetting hunger
USAID programmes focussing on nutrition operate within the Morogoro, Dodoma, Iringa, Mbeya, Manyara, Songwe and Zanzibar regions of Tanzania. These “Feed the Future” programmes heavily invest in nutrition, infrastructure, policy, capacity of institutions and agriculture which is identified by the organisation as a key area of economic growth in the country. A Tanzanian government led initiative “Kilimo Kwanza” or “Agriculture First” aims to encourage investment into agriculture within the private sector and hopes to improve agricultural processes and development within the country by seeking the knowledge of young people and the innovation that they can potentially provide. During the 1990s, around 25% of Tanzania’s population were provided access to iodized oil aimed to target iodine deficiency within expecting mothers, as result of studies showing the negative effects of in-utero iodine deficiency on cognitive development in children. Research showed that children of mothers with access to the supplement achieved on average greater than a third of a year more education than those who did not.
Programmes led by the World Food Programme operate within Tanzania. The Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) aims to target acute malnutrition by supplying blended food fortified with vitamins to pregnant women and mothers to children under 5 on a monthly basis. Pregnant women and mothers to children under 2 have access to the Mother and Child Health and Nutrition Programme’s “Super Cereal” which is supplied with the intent of reducing stunting in children. World Food Programme supplementation remains the main food source for Tanzania’s refugees. Super Cereal, Vegetable Oil, Pulses and Salt are supplied as part of the Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation in order to meet the average persons minimum daily caloric requirement of 2,100 kcal. UNICEF state that continued investment in nutrition within Tanzania is of the utmost importance: Estimates predict that Tanzania stands to lose $20 billion by 2025 if nutrition within the country remains at its current level, however improvements in nutrition could produce a gain of around $4.7 billion
Save the Children, with the help of UNICEF and Irish Aid funding created the Partnership for Nutrition in Tanzania (PANITA), in 2011. PANITA aims to utilise civil society organisations to target nutrition within the country. Alongside this, various sectors associated with nutrition are targeted such as agriculture, water, sanitation, education, economic development and social progress. PANITA is responsible for ensuring significant attention is given to nutrition in development plans and budgets created on national and regional levels within Tanzania. Since its conception, PANITA has grown from 94 to 306 participating civil society organisations nationwide. Agriculture within Tanzania is targeted by the Irish Aid led initiative Harnessing Agriculture for Nutrition Outcomes (HANO), which aims to merge nutrition initiatives with agriculture in the Lindi District of the country. The project aims to reduce stunting by 10% in children aged 0 to 23 months.
Science and technology
Tanzania’s first “National Science and Technology Policy” was adopted in 1996. The objective of the government’s “Vision 2025” (1998) document was to “transform the economy into a strong, resilient and competitive one, buttressed by science and technology”.
Under the umbrella of the One UN Initiative, UNESCO and Tanzanian government departments and agencies formulated a series of proposals in 2008 for revising the “National Science and Technology Policy”. The total reform budget of US$10 million was financed from the One UN fund and other sources. UNESCO provided support for mainstreaming science, technology, and innovation into the new “National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy” for the mainland and Zanzibar namely, Mkukuta II and Mkuza II, including in the field of tourism.
Tanzania’s revised science policy was published in 2010. Entitled “National Research and Development Policy”, it recognises the need to improve the process of prioritisation of research capacities, develop international co-operation in strategic areas of research and development, and improve planning for human resources. It also makes provisions for the establishment of a National Research Fund. This policy was, in turn, reviewed in 2012 and 2013.
In 2010, Tanzania devoted 0.38 percent of GDP to research and development. The global average in 2013 was 1.7 percent of GDP. Tanzania had 69 researchers (in head counts) per million population in 2010. In 2014, Tanzania counted 15 publications per million inhabitants in internationally catalogued journals, according to Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded). The average for sub-Saharan Africa was 20 publications per million inhabitants and the global average 176 publications per million inhabitants.
The population distribution in Tanzania is uneven. Most people live on the northern border or the eastern coast, with much of the remainder of the country being sparsely populated.:page 1252 Density varies from 12 per square kilometre (31/sq mi) in the Katavi Region to 3,133 per square kilometre (8,110/sq mi) in the Dar es Salaam Region.:page 6
Approximately 70 percent of the population is rural, although this percentage has been declining since at least 1967. Dar es Salaam (population 4,364,541) is the largest city and commercial capital. Dodoma (population 410,956) is located in the centre of Tanzania, is the capital of the country, and hosts the National Assembly.
At the time of the foundation of the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964 the child mortality rate was 335 deaths per 1,000 live births. Since independence the rate of child deaths declined to 62 per 1000 births.
Largest cities or towns in Tanzania
Dar es Salaam
|1||Dar es Salaam||Dar es Salaam||4,364,541||
|10||Zanzibar City||Zanzibar West||223,033|
The population consists of about 125 ethnic groups. The Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, and Haya peoples each have a population exceeding 1 million.:page 4 Approximately 99 percent of Tanzanians are of native African descent, with small numbers of Arab, European, and Asian descent. The majority of Tanzanians, including the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi, are Bantu.
The population also includes people of Arab, Persian, and Indian origin, and small European and Chinese communities. Many also identify as Shirazis. Thousands of Arabs, Persians, and Indians were massacred during the Zanzibar Revolution of 1964. As of 1994, the Asian community numbered 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 10,000 Europeans lived in Tanzania.
Some albinos in Tanzania have been the victims of violence in recent years. Attacks are often to hack off the limbs of albinos in the perverse superstitious belief that possessing the bones of albinos will bring wealth. The country has banned witch doctors to try to prevent the practice, but it has continued and albinos remain targets.
According to 2010 Tanzanian government statistics, the total fertility rate in Tanzania was 5.4 children born per woman, with 3.7 in urban mainland areas, 6.1 in rural mainland areas, and 5.1 in Zanzibar.:page 55 For all women aged 45–49, 37.3 percent had given birth to eight or more children, and for currently married women in that age group, 45.0 percent had given birth to that many children.:page 61
Official statistics on religion are unavailable because religious surveys were eliminated from government census reports after 1967. Tanzania’s religious field is dominated by Christianity and Islam as well as of different African Traditional Religions connected to ethnic customs. The word for religion in Swahili, dini, generally apply to the world religions of Christianity and Islam meaning that followers of African Traditional Religions are consider to be of “no religion”. Religious belonging is often ambiguous, with some people adhering to multiple religious identities at the same time (for instance being Christian but also following African Traditional rituals) something which point to that religious boundaries are flexible and contextual.
According to a 2014 estimate by the CIA World Factbook, 61.4 percent of the population was Christian, 35.2 percent was Muslim, 1.8 percent practised traditional African religions, 1.4 percent were unaffiliated with any religion, and 0.2 followed other religions. Nearly the entire population of Zanzibar is Muslim. Of Muslims, 16 percent are Ahmadiyya (although they are often not considered Muslims), 20 percent are non-denominational Muslims, 40 percent are Sunni, 20 percent are Shia, and 4% are Sufi.
Within the Christian community the Roman Catholic Church is the largest denomination (51 percent of all Christians). Among the Protestants, the large number of Lutherans and Moravians points to the German colonial and missionary past of the country, while the number of Anglicans point to the British colonial and missionary history of Tanganyika. A growing Pentecostals and Adventists are also present large because of external missionary activities from the Nordic region and the US in the first part of the 20th century. All of them have had some influence in varying degrees from the Walokole movement (East African Revival), which has also been fertile ground for the spread of charismatic and Pentecostal groups.
More than 100 languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. Among the languages spoken are all four of Africa’s language families: Bantu, Cushitic, Nilotic, and Khoisan. There are no de jure official languages in Tanzania.
Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, The Tanzanian government, however, has plans to discontinue English as a language of instruction. In connection with his Ujamaa social policies, President Nyerere encouraged the use of Swahili to help unify the country’s many ethnic groups. Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language. Many educated Tanzanians are trilingual, also speaking English. The widespread use and promotion of Swahili is contributing to the decline of smaller languages in the country. Young children increasingly speak Swahili as a first language, particularly in urban areas. Ethnic community languages (ECL) other than Kiswahili are not allowed as a language of instruction. Nor are they taught as a subject, though they might be used unofficially in some cases in initial education. Television and radio programmes in an ECL are prohibited, and it is nearly impossible to get permission to publish a newspaper in an ECL. There is no department of local or regional African Languages and Literatures at the University of Dar es Salaam.
The Sandawe people speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana and Namibia, while the language of the Hadzabe people, although it has similar click consonants, is arguably a language isolate. The language of the Iraqw people is Cushitic.
In 2012, the literacy rate in Tanzania for persons aged 15 and over was estimated to be 67.8 percent. Education is compulsory until children reach age 15. In 2010, 74.1 percent of children age 5 to 14 years were attending school. The primary school completion rate was 80.8 percent in 2012.
As of 2012, life expectancy at birth was 61 years. The under-five mortality rate in 2012 was 54 per 1,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate in 2013 was estimated at 410 per 100,000 live births. Prematurity and malaria were tied in 2010 as the leading cause of death in children under 5 years old. The other leading causes of death for these children were, in decreasing order, malaria, diarrhoea, HIV, and measles.
Malaria in Tanzania causes death and disease and has a “huge economic impact”.:page 13 There were approximately 11.5 million cases of clinical malaria in 2008.:page 12 In 2007–08, malaria prevalence among children aged 6 months to 5 years was highest in the Kagera Region (41.1 percent) on the western shore of Lake Victoria and lowest in the Arusha Region (0.1 percent).:page 12
According to the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010, 15 percent of Tanzanian women had undergone female genital mutilation (FGM):page 295 and 72 percent of Tanzanian men had been circumcised.:page 230 FGM is most common in the Manyara, Dodoma, Arusha, and Singida regions and nonexistent in Zanzibar.:page 296 The prevalence of male circumcision was above 90 percent in the eastern (Dar es Salaam, Pwani, and Morogoro regions), northern (Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Arusha, and Manyara regions), and central areas (Dodoma and Singida regions) and below 50 percent only in the southern highlands zone (Mbeya, Iringa, and Rukwa regions).:pages 6, 230
2012 data showed that 53 percent of the population used improved drinking water sources (defined as a source that “by nature of its construction and design, is likely to protect the source from outside contamination, in particular from faecal matter”) and 12 percent used improved sanitation facilities (defined as facilities that “likely hygienically separates human excreta from human contact” but not including facilities shared with other households or open to public use).
Women and men have equality before the law. The government signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1985. Nearly 3 out of ten females reported having experienced sexual violence before the age of 18.  The prevalence of female genital mutilation has decreased. School girls are reinstated back to school after delivery. The Police Force administration strives to separate the Gender Desks from normal police operations to enhance confidentiality of the processing of women victims of abuse. Most of the abuses and violence against women and children occurs at the family level. The Constitution of Tanzania requires that women to constitute at least 30% of all elected members of National Assembly. The gender differences in education and training have implications later in life of these women and girls. Unemployment is higher for females than for males. The right of a female employee to maternity leave is guaranteed in labour law.
Tanzania’s literary culture is primarily oral.:page 68 Major oral literary forms include folktales, poems, riddles, proverbs, and songs.:page 69 The greatest part of Tanzania’s recorded oral literature is in Swahili, even though each of the country’s languages has its own oral tradition.:pages 68–9 The country’s oral literature has been declining because of the breakdown of the multigenerational social structure, making transmission of oral literature more difficult, and because increasing modernisation has been accompanied by the devaluation of oral literature.:page 69
Books in Tanzania are often expensive and hard to come by.:page 75:page 16 Most Tanzanian literature is in Swahili or English.:page 75 Major figures in Tanzanian written literature include Shaaban Robert (considered the father of Swahili literature), Muhammed Saley Farsy, Faraji Katalambulla, Adam Shafi Adam, Muhammed Said Abdalla, Said Ahmed Mohammed Khamis, Mohamed Suleiman Mohamed, Euphrase Kezilahabi, Gabriel Ruhumbika, Ebrahim Hussein, May Materru Balisidya, Fadhy Mtanga, Abdulrazak Gurnah, and Penina O. Mlama.:pages 76–8
Painting and sculpture
Two Tanzanian art styles have achieved international recognition.:p. 17 The Tingatinga school of painting, founded by Edward Said Tingatinga, consists of brightly coloured enamel paintings on canvas, generally depicting people, animals, or daily life.:p. 113:p. 17 After Tingatinga’s death in 1972, other artists adopted and developed his style, with the genre now being the most important tourist-oriented style in East Africa.:p. 113:p. 17
Historically, there were limited opportunities for formal European art training in Tanzania and many aspiring Tanzanian artists left the country to pursue their vocation.:p. 17
Football is very popular throughout the country. The most popular professional football clubs in Dar es Salaam are the Young Africans F.C. and Simba S.C. The Tanzania Football Federation is the governing body for football in the country.
Other popular sports include basketball, netball, boxing, volleyball, athletics, and rugby. The National Sports Council also known as Baraza la Michezo la Taifa is the governing body for sports in the country under the Ministry of Information, Youth, Sports and Culture
Tanzania has a popular film industry known as “Bongo Movie”. The music industry is known as “Bongo Flava” which is in itself also a niche genre of music in Tanzania.
- Index of Tanzania-related articles
- Outline of Tanzania
- Tanzania, a genus of African jumping spiders
- “Tanzania”. Ethnologue. SIL International.
- David Lawrence (2009). Tanzania: The Land, Its People and Contemporary Life. Intercontinental Books. p. 146. ISBN 978-9987-9308-3-8.
- “About the United Republic of Tanzania”. Permanent Representative of Tanzania to the United Nations. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 31 January2015.
- Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania (25 April 1978)
- ““Basic Facts and Figures on Human Settlements, 2012″, National Bureau of Statistics, Tanzania Ministry of Finance, 2013, page 1, accessed 10 November 2014″.
- ““World Population prospects – Population division““. population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- ““Overall total population” – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision” (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November2019.
- “Population Distribution by Administrative Areas, 2012 Population and Housing Census, National Bureau of Statistics, United Republic of Tanzania, 2013″.
- “Report for Selected Countries and Subjects”.
- “GINI Index”. The World Bank. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- “Human Development Report 2019” (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- “UPDATE 2-Tanzania’s GDP expands by 32 pct after rebasing – officials”. Reuters. Reuters. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- “Tanzania | Define Tanzania at Dictionary.com”. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- “Tanzania”. Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- Tishkoff, S. A.; Reed, F. A.; Friedlaender, F. R.; Ehret, C.; Ranciaro, A.; Froment, A.; Hirbo, J. B.; Awomoyi, A. A.; Bodo, J. M.; Doumbo, O.; Ibrahim, M.; Juma, A. T.; Kotze, M. J.; Lema, G.; Moore, J. H.; Mortensen, H.; Nyambo, T. B.; Omar, S. A.; Powell, K.; Pretorius, G. S.; Smith, M. W.; Thera, M. A.; Wambebe, C.; Weber, J. L.; Williams, S. M. (2009). “The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans”. Science. 324 (5930): 1035–44. Bibcode:2009Sci…324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144.
- Christopher Ehret (2001). An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400. University Press of Virginia. ISBN 978-0-8139-2057-3.
- Central Intelligence Agency. “Tanzania”. The World Factbook.
- “United Republic of Tanzania | The Commonwealth”. thecommonwealth.org.
- African Studies Center University of Pennsylvania. “Tanzania — Ethnic Groups”. East Africa Living Encyclopedia.
- Aloysius C. Mosha. “The planning of the new capital of Tanzania: Dodoma, an unfulfilled dream” (PDF). University of Botswana. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- “The Tanzania National Website: Country Profile”. Tanzania.go.tz. Archived from the original on 25 November 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- “Dar es Salaam Port”. Tanzaniaports.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February2014.
- “Kalambo Falls”. Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier (2006). Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1967. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1.
- “Tanzania Country Information – All about Tanzania”. www.expogr.com. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- “Tanzania Profile”. Tanzania.go.tz. Tanzanian Government. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- “Tanzania Ditches English In Education Overhaul Plan”. AFK Insider. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- Harper, Douglas. “tanzania”. Online Etymology Dictionary.
- John Knouse: A Political World Gazetteer: AfricaArchived 10 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine website accessed 1 May 2007.
- Harper, Douglas. “zanzibar”. Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Phyllis Martin; Patrick O’Meara (1995). Africa. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-20984-9.
- Shoup, John A. (2011). Ethnic groups of Africa and the Middle East : an encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-59884-362-0.
- Schmidt, P.; Avery, D.H. (1978). “Complex iron smelting and prehistoric culture in Tanzania”. Science. 201 (4361): 1085–89. Bibcode:1978Sci…201.1085S. doi:10.1126/science.201.4361.1085. PMID 17830304.
- Kevin Shillington (2013). Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set. Routledge. p. 1510. ISBN 978-1-135-45670-2.
- “The Story of Africa”. BBC World Service.
- “Slavery”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- “Slave societies”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- “The Story of Africa | BBC World Service”. BBC.
- Junius P. Rodriguez (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-87436-885-7.
- “On The Zanzibar Map: Spices, Slaves And A Bit Of History”. 17 February 2015.
- Fall, Makhete. Early Political Discord in Kenya: European Settlers’ Political Struggles in the East Africa Protectorate, 1902-1912 (Thesis). West Virginia University Libraries.
- William Roger Louis (2006). Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-347-6. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- “PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE, 1919”. United States Department of State. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Jay Heale; Winnie Wong (2010). Tanzania. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-3417-7.
- “African participants in the Second World War”. mgtrust.org.
- “Tanzania: British rule between the Wars (1916–1945)”. eisa.org.za. Archived 4 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Mulenga, Derek C. (November 2001). “Mwalimu Julius Nyerere: a critical review of his contributions to adult education and postcolonialism”. International Journal of Lifelong Education. 20 (6): 446–470. doi:10.1080/02601370110088436. ISSN 0260-1370.
- “Statistical Abstract 2013, National Bureau of Statistics” (PDF). Tanzania Ministry of Finance. July 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- “Unveiling Zanzibar’s unhealed wounds”. BBC News. 25 July 2009.
- “Background history of The Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar” (PDF). Vice President’s Office, United Republic of Tanzania. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- “The United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar is renamed United Republic of Tanzania”. South African History Online. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- “United Republic of Tanzania : History”. Commonwealth.org. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- Pierre Englebert and Kevin C. Dunn, “Inside African Politics” 2013: 81
- Henry Bienen and John Waterbury, “World Development Vol 17”, 1989: 100
- Jamie Monson (2009). Africa’s Freedom Railway: How a Chinese Development Project Changed Lives and Livelihoods in Tanzania. Indiana University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-253-35271-2.
- Anna Muganda (2004). “Tanzania’s Economic Reforms – and Lessons Learned” (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- “Tanzania 1992” Archived 18 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. princeton.edu.
- ““Tanzania: 1995 National Assembly election results““. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015.
- “CIA – The World Factbook – Rank Order – Area”. Cia.gov. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- “Country review: United Republic of Tanzania”. Fisheries and Aquaculture Depart, United Nations. (FAO). December 2003.
- Joseph Lake (2013) “Economy” in Africa South of the Sahara, edited by Europa Publications and Iain Frame, Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-659-8
- Zorita, Eduardo; Tilya, Faustine F. (12 February 2002). “Rainfall variability in Northern Tanzania in the March–May season (long rains) and its links to large-scale climate forcing” (PDF). Climate Research. 20: 31–40. Bibcode:2002ClRes..20…31Z. doi:10.3354/cr020031. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- Ridwan Laher; Korir SingíOei (2014). Indigenous People in Africa.: Contestations, Empowerment and Group Rights. Africa Institute of South Africa. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-7983-0464-1.
- “Home”. Tanzania National Parks. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- “Gombe Stream National Park”. Tanzania National Parks. Archived from the original on 4 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- Laura Riley; William Riley (2005). Nature’s Strongholds: The World’s Great Wildlife Reserves. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12219-9.
- S. N. Stuart; Martin Jenkins (1990). Biodiversity in Sub-Saharan Africa and Its Islands: Conservation, Management, and Sustainable Use. IUCN. p. 204. ISBN 978-2-8317-0021-2.
- “Serengeti wildebeest migration”. Retrieved 20 March2019.
- Edoarado Razzetti and Charles Andekia Msuya (2002) “Introduction”, Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Arusha National Park. Tanzania National Parks. p. 11
- “Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania” (PDF). Judiciary of Tanzania. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 19 February2014.
- “Tanzania’s ruling party secures the presidency and a two-thirds majority in parliament”. Quartz. Retrieved 30 October2015.
- “Tanzania: Government”. Broad College of Business, Michigan State University. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- Christabel Manning and Seka Kasera. “UPDATE: Guide to Tanzanian Legal System and Legal Research”. GlobaLex. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- The Constitution of Zanzibar. zltb.go.tz. 2006.
- “Commercial Division — High Court of Tanzania”. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- “Welcome to High Court of Zanzibar”. judiciaryzanzibar.go.tz. Archived 17 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- “UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA Public Administration Country Profile” (PDF). January 2004.
- “African States, State Parties to the Rome Statute, International Criminal Court, accessed 21 October 2014”. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014.
- “State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition” (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017.
- “Pew Global Attitudes Project” (PDF). Pew Research Centre. pp. 35, 84, and 117. Archived from the original (PDF)on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- “Tanzania albino murders: ‘More than 200 witchdoctors’ arrested“. BBC News. 12 March 2015.
- Charlotte Baker (22 September 2017) “The trade in body parts of people with albinism is driven by myths and international inaction”. independent.co.uk
- “Tanzania: Withdrawal of individual rights to African Court will deepen repression”. Amnesty International. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- “Zanzibar: Constitution”. Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa. Archived from the originalon 25 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- Markku Suksi (2011). Sub-State Governance through Territorial Autonomy: A Comparative Study in Constitutional Law of Powers, Procedures and Institutions. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 467. ISBN 978-3-642-20048-9.
- “LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM IN TANZANIA”(PDF). 31 May 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2013.
- Kilyinga, Nasongelya (10 July 2015). “Enter Songwe Region as Six Districts Created”. Daily News. Retrieved 21 February2017.
- Mwakyusa, Alvar (4 February 2016). “Songwe is new region – with four districts”. Daily News. Archived from the originalon 5 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
- Regions. tanzania.go.tz
- “City Status”. Dar Es Salaam City Council. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013.
- “Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act, 1982, amended 1999” (PDF). Parliamentary On-line Information System. 1999. 7A and 69A. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- Andreas Mehler; Henning Melber; Klaas van Walraven (2013). Africa Yearbook Volume 9: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2012. Brill. pp. 410–. ISBN 978-90-04-25600-2.
- “Tanzania: After Two Days, No Agreement Over Lake Niassa”. AllAfrica.com. 22 March 2014.
- “Malawi, Tanzania agree on ICJ over lake dispute | TVC NEWS”. tvcnews.tv. Archived 17 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- “Declarations Recognizing the Jurisdiction of the Court as Compulsory | International Court of Justice” Archived 10 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. icj-cij.org.
- Peter Fabricius (27 May 2013). “Africa fights to free itself of malcontents”. Independent Online.
- “Kagame speaks out on Kikwete’s call for negotiations with FDLR rebels”. theeastafrican.co.ke.
- “Kigali, Dar face off again over DRC conflict”. theeastafrican.co.ke. 31 May 2014
- “Export destinations of Tea from Tanzania (2013)”. The Observatory of Economic Complexity.
- “China’s investment in Tanzania surges”. The Citizen. Agence France-Presse. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- “U.S. Relations With Tanzania”. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Gabriella Schwarz; Jessica Yellin (1 July 2013). “Obama in Tanzania, sees Africa as next global economic success”. CNN.
- “East African Community: One People One Destiny”. East African Community. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- “Annex on the Free Movement of Persons”. East African Community. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- “Annex on the Right of Residence”. East African Community. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Marc Nkwame (2 October 2014) “Regional Meeting Pushes for Free Labour Movement”. Daily News
- “Member States”. Southern African Development Community. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- “Declaration launching Tripartite FTA negotiations – English” Archived 23 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. comesa-eac-sadc-tripartite.org.
- Contributions by Country, United Nations Peacekeeping, 31 October 2014
- “Tanzanian troops arrive in eastern DR Congo as part of UN intervention brigade”. United Nations. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- UN Mission’s Summary detailed by Country, United Nations Peacekeeping, 31 October 2014, p. 39 Archived 27 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- “Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons”. United Nations Treaty Collection. 7 July 2017.
- “World Economic Outlook Database April 2018”. www.imf.org.
- “GDP per capita growth (annual %)”. World Bank.
- “OEC – Tanzania (TZA) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners”. atlas.media.mit.edu. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- “About Tanzania | UNDP in Tanzania”. undp.org.
- “2013 Global Hunger Index”. International Food Policy Research Institute. October 2013
- “Tanzania”. Global Hunger Index – Official Website of the Peer-Reviewed Publication. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- “About us”. UNDP.
- “Tanzania”. Heifer International.
- “MKUKUTA Annual Implementation Report 2012/13”(PDF). Tanzania Ministry of Finance. November 2013. p. 11.
- “Arable land (% of land area)”. World Bank.
- “Permanent cropland (% of land area)”. World Bank. Archived 7 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- “Irrigation will give us more food by 2015 – govt”. 5 December 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- “International – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)”.
- “Access to electricity (% of population)”. World Bank. Archived 12 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- “Electricity” Archived 23 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ewura.go.tz. 9 March 2012
- ““Quarterly Economic Review and Budget Execution Report for Fiscal Year 2013/14: January–March 2014″, Tanzania Ministry of Finance, May 2014, accessed 11 November 2014″ (PDF).
- “Tanzania: Electricity and Heat for 2012” Archived 28 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine. iea.org.
- “Tanzania: Electricity and Heat for 2005”. iea.org. Archived 26 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- ashery mkama. “DailyNews Online Edition” Archived 29 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. DailyNews Online Edition.
- “Tanzania: Govt Signs Gas Supply Deal to Double Power Generation”. allAfrica.com. 17 September 2014
- “Electricity Supply Industry Reform Strategy and Roadmap 2014–2025, Tanzania Ministry of Energy and Minerals, 30 June 2014, page i, accessed 26 October 2014” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2015.
- “OIL and GAS EXPLORATION.pdf” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 9 April2015.
- “International – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)”. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015.
- “Natural Gas” Archived 23 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ewura.go.tz. 9 March 2012
- “2014 Q2 Report for the Quarter Ended June 30 2014 and 2013” Archived 17 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Orca Exploration Group Inc., p. 3
- “Tanzania gas pipe: finished but not in service”. April 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- “Tanzania Tourist Arrivals Increase by 12.9% in 2016 to Reach 1,28 M – TanzaniaInvest”. TanzaniaInvest. 26 May 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- “World Travel and Tourism Council Data, 2013”. Knoema.
- “UNWTO Tourism Highlights: 2014 Edition, United Nations World Tourism Organization, page 11, accessed 17 November 2014″ (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2015.
- “About the Bank — Primary Objective and Function of the Bank”. Bank of Tanzania. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- Annual Report 2013 Archived 5 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Directorate of Banking Supervision, Bank of Tanzania, p. 5
- “Dar Es Salaam Officially Launch Bus Rapid Transit System – TanzaniaInvest”. 27 January 2017.
- Ministry of Water and Irrigation Water Sector Status Report 2009 retrieved Feb 2010
- Caroline van den Berg, Eileen Burke, Leonard Chacha and Flora Kessy, Public Expenditure Review of the Water Sector, September 2009
- National Water Sector Development Strategy 2006 to 2015, retrieved 23 February 2010 Archived 19 April 2013 at Archive.today
- Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit:Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Reforms in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia:Challenges and Lessons[permanent dead link], 2008, pp. 8–9
- “Tanzania: Nutrition Profile”. www.usaid.gov. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October2018.
- “UNICEF Tanzania—Nutrition—The situation”. www.unicef.org. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- “Tanzania Assessment for Scaling Up Nutrition”(PDF). 2012 – via Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre.
- Makoye, Kizito. “Survey finds most Tanzanians go hungry, despite government denials”. U.S. Retrieved 20 November2018.
- Makoye, Kizito. “Survey finds most Tanzanians go hungry, despite government denials”. U.S. Retrieved 18 October2018.
- Alphonce, Roselyne (2017). “Addressing the mismatch between food and nutrition policies and needs in Tanzania”(PDF).
- Douglas Gollin, David Lagakos, and Michael E. Waugh (November 2013). “The Agricultural Productivity Gap” (PDF)– via National Bureau of Economic Research.
- “African Human Development Report 2012” (PDF). 2012: 80, 93 – via United Nations Development Programme.
- “UN World Food Programme”. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
- “Nutrition | Tanzania | Save the Children”. tanzania.savethechildren.net. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Kraemer-Mbula, Erika; Scerri, Mario (2015). Southern Africa. In: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. 535–565. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017.
- “Tanzania in figures 2012” (PDF). National Bureau of Statistics, Tanzania. June 2013. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 19 February2014.
- Athuman Mtulya (26 September 2013) “Report reveals rapid rural -urban migration”. thecitizen.co.tz.
- 2012 Census General Report. nbs.go.tz. March 2013
- “Child mortality in Tanzania”.[permanent dead link]
- David Levinson (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Oryx Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1.
- Kefa M. Otiso (2013). Culture and Customs of Tanzania. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-08708-0.
- “Tanzania (06/02)”. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- “Tanzania orders Chinese out of Dar es Salaam market”. BBC News. 7 January 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- “Tanzania (08/09)”. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- “BBC NEWS | Africa | Living in fear: Tanzania’s albinos”. BBC.
- “BBC News – Tanzanian witch doctors arrested over albino killing”. BBC News.
- “BBC News – UN’s Navi Pillay condemns Tanzania attacks on albinos”. BBC News.
- “Report: Scores of albinos in hiding after attacks”. CNN. 29 November 2009
- “Albino teen attacked for her body parts – CNN Video”.
- Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010, National Bureau of Statistics, Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, April 2011
- Liviga, Athumani, and Zubeda Tumbo-Masabo. (2006). “Muslims in Tanzania: Quest for Equal Footing.” In Justice Rights and Worship: Religion and Politics in Tanzania, edited by Rwekaza S. Mukandala, S. Yahya-Othman, S.S. Mushi and L. Ndumbaro, 129-64. Dar es Salaam: 2006. pp. 149–150. ISBN 9987411312.
- Masanja Patrick and Yussuf Lawi. (2006). “African Traditional Religion in Contemporary Tanzanian Society.” In Justice Rights and Worship: Religion and Politics in Tanzania, edited by Rwekaza S. Mukandala, S. Yahya-Othman, S.S. Mushi and L. Ndumbaro, 97-114. Dar es Salaam: E & D Limited. ISBN 9987411312.
- Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life (2010). “Tolerance and Tension: Islam and Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa”. PEW. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- Sundkler, Bengt, and Christopher Steed. (2000). A History of the Church in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 1013. ISBN 978-0521583428.
- Moritz Fischer (2011). ““The Spirit helps us in our weakness”: Charismatization of Worldwide Christianity and the Quest for an Appropriate Pneumatology with Focus on the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania”. Journal of Pentecostal Theology. 20: 96–121. doi:10.1163/174552511X554573.
- “U.S. Department of State”. state.gov. 2008.
- Joshua A. Fishman Distinguished University Research Professor of Social Sciences Yeshiva University (Emeritus) (2001). Handbook of Language & Ethnic Identity. Oxford University Press. pp. 361–. ISBN 978-0-19-976139-5.
- Quintin Winks (2011). Tanzania – Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture. Kuperard. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-1-85733-625-2.
- Colin Baker; Sylvia Prys Jones (1998). Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Multilingual Matters. pp. 367–. ISBN 978-1-85359-362-8.
- François Grosjean (1982). Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Harvard University Press. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-0-674-53092-8.
- Matthias Brenzinger (1992). Language Death: Factual and Theoretical Explorations with Special Reference to East Africa. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-3-11-013404-9.
- Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 2010. pp. 1026–. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4.
- Henry R.T. Muzale; Josephat M. Rugemalira (June 2008). “Researching and Documenting the Languages of Tanzania”(PDF). Language Documentation and Conservation. 2 (1): 68–108.
- Roger Blench (2006). Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. Rowman Altamira. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7591-1421-0.
- “Iraqw”. Ethnologue.
- “Tanzania, United Republic of – Statistics”. UNICEF. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- “2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor”(PDF). U.S. Department of Labor. Archived from the original(PDF) on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- “United Republic of Tanzania: Health Profile” (PDF). World Health Organization. May 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October2014.
- “World Health Statistics” (PDF). World Health Organization. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- “Focus on Mainland Tanzania”, Roll Back Malaria Progress & Impact Series, The Roll Back Malaria Partnership, January 2012, accessed 19 October 2014 Archived 12 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- “Global Health Observatory Data Repository”. who.int.
- “Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention, Seventh and eighth periodic reports of States parties due in 2014 : United Republic of Tanzania”. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). 3 December 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- Tim Doling (1999) Tanzania Arts Directory. Visiting Arts
- Wakabi Wairagala (2004). Tanzania. Gareth Stevens Pub. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8368-3119-1.
- Annabel Skinner (2005). Tanzania & Zanzibar. New Holland Publishers. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-86011-216-4.
- Bev Pritchett (2007). Tanzania in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-0-8225-8571-8.
- “NSC”. Tanzania Sports. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- Koçak, A. Ö.; Kemal, M. (2008). “New synonyms and replacement names in the genus group taxa of Araneida”. Centre for Entomological Studies Ankara, Miscellaneous Papers. 139-140: 1–4.